Medeival dating

The analyses presented in this paper have been mainly performed as a preliminary check of the Cryo2Soni C methodology in order to assess its applicability to this study site by comparing observed mortar results with archaeological expectations about the citadel development phasing and charcoals found encased in mortars.

Petrographic and mineralogical thin-section analyses by optical microscopy (TSOM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy plus energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) investigations were carried out for characterization of the mortar samples to verify the occurrence of some features, related to their production technology, which may introduce dating offsets. Such results showed also a general (with 1 exception) statistical agreement among the charcoals and the analyzed mortars simultaneously, confirming the archaeological expectations for the Shayzar citadel.

A typical Source Document is a combination of the original unmodified text of the charter and complementary information derived from the charter itself, from the corresponding edition of the cartulary or collection of charters from which it is taken, or from external sources.

Source Document is defined in terms of markup language as a tree-like hierarchy composed of the following elements : content, data, notes and markup.

MOLA (Museum of London Archaeology) publications, including the Monograph and Archaeology Studies series, employ standard codes for ceramics of all periods. A fabric number system is used to record Medieval and post-medieval ceramic building materials fabric dating and the numbers relate to detailed fabric descriptions.

This paper reports the results from applying the Cryo2Soni C (Cryobreaking, Sonication, Centrifugation) protocol to some lime mortars sampled from the citadel of Shayzar (Syria).

Underlying this whole process of change, however, is the phenomenon, common to all languages at all times, of obsolescence and word replacement.

Put quite simply, changes in word usage and expression are the most immediate reflection of social change.

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After taking into consideration any additional information that might be found in the text, such as the nature of the content, the structural organization of the text, topographical features, references to names of people and institutions, etc., final conclusions can be drawn by combining the results collected from the above analyses of each such component.Obviously, the number of charters available for each chronological time span varies (fig.1), as does the accuracy of the chronological evidence which varies from the exact day, month and year to a range of several years.The DEEDS Project’s Corpus presently includes about 7000 medieval Latin charters from twelfth- and thirteenth-century England derived from printed sources.All charters included in the Corpus are dated internally or by the editor of the collection using internal evidence.

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