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Around 70,000 BC, during the Middle Paleolithic period the last ice age began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established.
The Escoural Cave has evidence of human activity starting in the Middle Palaeolithic, Around 35,000 BC, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began.
The seemingly deliberate placement of remains and lack of habitation may mean that the bodies were deliberately interred in the pit as a place of burial, which would make the site the first evidence of hominin burial.
Around 200,000 BC, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula.
No evidence of habitation has been found at the site except for one stone hand-ax, and all of the remains at the site are of young adults or teenagers.
A Neanderthal skull was found in Forbes' Quarry in Gibraltar in 1848 making it the second territory after Belgium where remains of Neanderthals were found.Neanderthals were not recognized as a separate species until the discovery of remains in Neandertal, Germany in 1856, though their classification as a separate species has recently been called into question.and preserved excrement on top of baked mussel shells.Hominin inhabitation of the Iberian Peninsula dates from the Paleolithic.Early hominin remains have been discovered at a number of sites on the peninsula.